The images have begun circulating on Twitter after journalist Beata Płomecka shared the pictures.
"Such posters were pasted overnight on the doors of the offices of 54 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) who voted yesterday against the adoption of a resolution recognizing Russia as a sponsor of terrorism," she wrote as a caption in Polish.
The image of the Russian leader shows Putin with a bloodied hand covering most of his face. The writing on the pictures says: "With my votes I support a terrorist."
Following the invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February, Moscow has faced repeated accusations of war crimes.
On Wednesday 596 of the 705 MEPs voted on whether to recognize Russia as a state sponsor of terrorism, according to website MEP Watch, which tracks the voting records of MEPs.
A total of 494 MEPs voted in favor of recognizing Russia as a state sponsor of terrorism, with 58 voting against and 44 abstaining.
A European Parliament report reflected on the vote.
"MEPs highlight that the deliberate attacks and atrocities committed by Russian forces and their proxies against civilians in Ukraine, the destruction of civilian infrastructure and other serious violations of international and humanitarian law amount to acts of terror and constitute war crimes," the report said.
"In light of this, they recognize Russia as a state sponsor of terrorism and as a state that 'uses means of terrorism.'"
The report also highlighted what would be happening next regarding relations between Russia and the EU.
"As the EU currently cannot officially designate states as sponsors of terrorism, Parliament calls on the EU and its member states to put in place the proper legal framework and consider adding Russia to such a list.
"This would trigger a number of significant restrictive measures against Moscow and have profound restrictive implications for EU relations with Russia.
"In the meantime, MEPs call on the Council to include the Russian paramilitary organization 'the Wagner Group,' the 141st Special Motorized Regiment, also known as the 'Kadyrovites' and other Russian-funded armed groups, militias and proxies, on the EU's terrorist list."
Newsweek has contacted Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs for comment.
List of 58 MPs that Voted Against Recognizing Russia as State Sponsor of Terrorism.
João Pimenta Lopes
Marcel De Graaff
Miguel Urbán Crespo